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+.\" Man page written by Herve Eychenne <> (May 1999)
+.\" It is based on ipchains page.
+.\" TODO: add a word for protocol helpers (FTP, IRC, SNMP-ALG)
+.\" ipchains page by Paul ``Rusty'' Russell March 1997
+.\" Based on the original ipfwadm man page by Jos Vos <>
+.\" This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
+.\" it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
+.\" the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
+.\" (at your option) any later version.
+.\" This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
+.\" but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
+.\" GNU General Public License for more details.
+.\" You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
+.\" along with this program; if not, write to the Free Software
+.\" Foundation, Inc., 675 Mass Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA.
+iptables \(em administration tool for IPv4 packet filtering and NAT
+\fBiptables\fP [\fB\-t\fP \fItable\fP] {\fB\-A\fP|\fB\-C\fP|\fB\-D\fP}
+\fIchain\fP \fIrule-specification\fP
+\fBiptables\fP [\fB\-t\fP \fItable\fP] \fB\-I\fP \fIchain\fP [\fIrulenum\fP] \fIrule-specification\fP
+\fBiptables\fP [\fB\-t\fP \fItable\fP] \fB\-R\fP \fIchain rulenum rule-specification\fP
+\fBiptables\fP [\fB\-t\fP \fItable\fP] \fB\-D\fP \fIchain rulenum\fP
+\fBiptables\fP [\fB\-t\fP \fItable\fP] \fB\-S\fP [\fIchain\fP [\fIrulenum\fP]]
+\fBiptables\fP [\fB\-t\fP \fItable\fP] {\fB\-F\fP|\fB\-L\fP|\fB\-Z\fP} [\fIchain\fP [\fIrulenum\fP]] [\fIoptions...\fP]
+\fBiptables\fP [\fB\-t\fP \fItable\fP] \fB\-N\fP \fIchain\fP
+\fBiptables\fP [\fB\-t\fP \fItable\fP] \fB\-X\fP [\fIchain\fP]
+\fBiptables\fP [\fB\-t\fP \fItable\fP] \fB\-P\fP \fIchain target\fP
+\fBiptables\fP [\fB\-t\fP \fItable\fP] \fB\-E\fP \fIold-chain-name new-chain-name\fP
+rule-specification = [\fImatches...\fP] [\fItarget\fP]
+match = \fB\-m\fP \fImatchname\fP [\fIper-match-options\fP]
+target = \fB\-j\fP \fItargetname\fP [\fIper\-target\-options\fP]
+\fBIptables\fP is used to set up, maintain, and inspect the
+tables of IPv4 packet
+filter rules in the Linux kernel. Several different tables
+may be defined. Each table contains a number of built-in
+chains and may also contain user-defined chains.
+Each chain is a list of rules which can match a set of packets. Each
+rule specifies what to do with a packet that matches. This is called
+a `target', which may be a jump to a user-defined chain in the same
+A firewall rule specifies criteria for a packet and a target. If the
+packet does not match, the next rule in the chain is the examined; if
+it does match, then the next rule is specified by the value of the
+target, which can be the name of a user-defined chain or one of the
+special values \fBACCEPT\fP, \fBDROP\fP, \fBQUEUE\fP or \fBRETURN\fP.
+\fBACCEPT\fP means to let the packet through.
+\fBDROP\fP means to drop the packet on the floor.
+\fBQUEUE\fP means to pass the packet to userspace.
+(How the packet can be received
+by a userspace process differs by the particular queue handler. 2.4.x
+and 2.6.x kernels up to 2.6.13 include the \fBip_queue\fP
+queue handler. Kernels 2.6.14 and later additionally include the
+\fBnfnetlink_queue\fP queue handler. Packets with a target of QUEUE will be
+sent to queue number '0' in this case. Please also see the \fBNFQUEUE\fP
+target as described later in this man page.)
+\fBRETURN\fP means stop traversing this chain and resume at the next
+rule in the
+previous (calling) chain. If the end of a built-in chain is reached
+or a rule in a built-in chain with target \fBRETURN\fP
+is matched, the target specified by the chain policy determines the
+fate of the packet.
+There are currently three independent tables (which tables are present
+at any time depends on the kernel configuration options and which
+modules are present).
+\fB\-t\fP, \fB\-\-table\fP \fItable\fP
+This option specifies the packet matching table which the command
+should operate on. If the kernel is configured with automatic module
+loading, an attempt will be made to load the appropriate module for
+that table if it is not already there.
+The tables are as follows:
+.TP .4i
+This is the default table (if no \-t option is passed). It contains
+the built-in chains \fBINPUT\fP (for packets destined to local sockets),
+\fBFORWARD\fP (for packets being routed through the box), and
+\fBOUTPUT\fP (for locally-generated packets).
+This table is consulted when a packet that creates a new
+connection is encountered. It consists of three built-ins: \fBPREROUTING\fP
+(for altering packets as soon as they come in), \fBOUTPUT\fP
+(for altering locally-generated packets before routing), and \fBPOSTROUTING\fP
+(for altering packets as they are about to go out).
+This table is used for specialized packet alteration. Until kernel
+2.4.17 it had two built-in chains: \fBPREROUTING\fP
+(for altering incoming packets before routing) and \fBOUTPUT\fP
+(for altering locally-generated packets before routing).
+Since kernel 2.4.18, three other built-in chains are also supported:
+\fBINPUT\fP (for packets coming into the box itself), \fBFORWARD\fP
+(for altering packets being routed through the box), and \fBPOSTROUTING\fP
+(for altering packets as they are about to go out).
+This table is used mainly for configuring exemptions from connection
+tracking in combination with the NOTRACK target. It registers at the netfilter
+hooks with higher priority and is thus called before ip_conntrack, or any other
+IP tables. It provides the following built-in chains: \fBPREROUTING\fP
+(for packets arriving via any network interface) \fBOUTPUT\fP
+(for packets generated by local processes)
+This table is used for Mandatory Access Control (MAC) networking rules, such
+as those enabled by the \fBSECMARK\fP and \fBCONNSECMARK\fP targets.
+Mandatory Access Control is implemented by Linux Security Modules such as
+SELinux. The security table is called after the filter table, allowing any
+Discretionary Access Control (DAC) rules in the filter table to take effect
+before MAC rules. This table provides the following built-in chains:
+\fBINPUT\fP (for packets coming into the box itself),
+\fBOUTPUT\fP (for altering locally-generated packets before routing), and
+\fBFORWARD\fP (for altering packets being routed through the box).
+The options that are recognized by
+\fBiptables\fP can be divided into several different groups.
+These options specify the desired action to perform. Only one of them
+can be specified on the command line unless otherwise stated
+below. For long versions of the command and option names, you
+need to use only enough letters to ensure that
+\fBiptables\fP can differentiate it from all other options.
+\fB\-A\fP, \fB\-\-append\fP \fIchain rule-specification\fP
+Append one or more rules to the end of the selected chain.
+When the source and/or destination names resolve to more than one
+address, a rule will be added for each possible address combination.
+\fB\-C\fP, \fB\-\-check\fP \fIchain rule-specification\fP
+Check whether a rule matching the specification does exist in the
+selected chain. This command uses the same logic as \fB\-D\fP to
+find a matching entry, but does not alter the existing iptables
+configuration and uses its exit code to indicate success or failure.
+\fB\-D\fP, \fB\-\-delete\fP \fIchain rule-specification\fP
+\fB\-D\fP, \fB\-\-delete\fP \fIchain rulenum\fP
+Delete one or more rules from the selected chain. There are two
+versions of this command: the rule can be specified as a number in the
+chain (starting at 1 for the first rule) or a rule to match.
+\fB\-I\fP, \fB\-\-insert\fP \fIchain\fP [\fIrulenum\fP] \fIrule-specification\fP
+Insert one or more rules in the selected chain as the given rule
+number. So, if the rule number is 1, the rule or rules are inserted
+at the head of the chain. This is also the default if no rule number
+is specified.
+\fB\-R\fP, \fB\-\-replace\fP \fIchain rulenum rule-specification\fP
+Replace a rule in the selected chain. If the source and/or
+destination names resolve to multiple addresses, the command will
+fail. Rules are numbered starting at 1.
+\fB\-L\fP, \fB\-\-list\fP [\fIchain\fP]
+List all rules in the selected chain. If no chain is selected, all
+chains are listed. Like every other iptables command, it applies to the
+specified table (filter is the default), so NAT rules get listed by
+ iptables \-t nat \-n \-L
+Please note that it is often used with the \fB\-n\fP
+option, in order to avoid long reverse DNS lookups.
+It is legal to specify the \fB\-Z\fP
+(zero) option as well, in which case the chain(s) will be atomically
+listed and zeroed. The exact output is affected by the other
+arguments given. The exact rules are suppressed until you use
+ iptables \-L \-v
+\fB\-S\fP, \fB\-\-list\-rules\fP [\fIchain\fP]
+Print all rules in the selected chain. If no chain is selected, all
+chains are printed like iptables-save. Like every other iptables command,
+it applies to the specified table (filter is the default).
+\fB\-F\fP, \fB\-\-flush\fP [\fIchain\fP]
+Flush the selected chain (all the chains in the table if none is given).
+This is equivalent to deleting all the rules one by one.
+\fB\-Z\fP, \fB\-\-zero\fP [\fIchain\fP [\fIrulenum\fP]]
+Zero the packet and byte counters in all chains, or only the given chain,
+or only the given rule in a chain. It is legal to
+specify the
+\fB\-L\fP, \fB\-\-list\fP
+(list) option as well, to see the counters immediately before they are
+cleared. (See above.)
+\fB\-N\fP, \fB\-\-new\-chain\fP \fIchain\fP
+Create a new user-defined chain by the given name. There must be no
+target of that name already.
+\fB\-X\fP, \fB\-\-delete\-chain\fP [\fIchain\fP]
+Delete the optional user-defined chain specified. There must be no references
+to the chain. If there are, you must delete or replace the referring rules
+before the chain can be deleted. The chain must be empty, i.e. not contain
+any rules. If no argument is given, it will attempt to delete every
+non-builtin chain in the table.
+\fB\-P\fP, \fB\-\-policy\fP \fIchain target\fP
+Set the policy for the chain to the given target. See the section \fBTARGETS\fP
+for the legal targets. Only built-in (non-user-defined) chains can have
+policies, and neither built-in nor user-defined chains can be policy
+\fB\-E\fP, \fB\-\-rename\-chain\fP \fIold\-chain new\-chain\fP
+Rename the user specified chain to the user supplied name. This is
+cosmetic, and has no effect on the structure of the table.
+Give a (currently very brief) description of the command syntax.
+The following parameters make up a rule specification (as used in the
+add, delete, insert, replace and append commands).
+[\fB!\fP] \fB\-p\fP, \fB\-\-protocol\fP \fIprotocol\fP
+The protocol of the rule or of the packet to check.
+The specified protocol can be one of \fBtcp\fP, \fBudp\fP, \fBudplite\fP,
+\fBicmp\fP, \fBesp\fP, \fBah\fP, \fBsctp\fP or the special keyword "\fBall\fP",
+or it can be a numeric value, representing one of these protocols or a
+different one. A protocol name from /etc/protocols is also allowed.
+A "!" argument before the protocol inverts the
+test. The number zero is equivalent to \fBall\fP. "\fBall\fP"
+will match with all protocols and is taken as default when this
+option is omitted.
+[\fB!\fP] \fB\-s\fP, \fB\-\-source\fP \fIaddress\fP[\fB/\fP\fImask\fP][\fB,\fP\fI...\fP]
+Source specification. \fIAddress\fP
+can be either a network name, a hostname, a network IP address (with
+\fB/\fP\fImask\fP), or a plain IP address. Hostnames will
+be resolved once only, before the rule is submitted to the kernel.
+Please note that specifying any name to be resolved with a remote query such as
+DNS is a really bad idea.
+The \fImask\fP
+can be either a network mask or a plain number,
+specifying the number of 1's at the left side of the network mask.
+Thus, a mask of \fI24\fP is equivalent to \fI255.255.255.0\fP.
+A "!" argument before the address specification inverts the sense of
+the address. The flag \fB\-\-src\fP is an alias for this option.
+Multiple addresses can be specified, but this will \fBexpand to multiple
+rules\fP (when adding with \-A), or will cause multiple rules to be
+deleted (with \-D).
+[\fB!\fP] \fB\-d\fP, \fB\-\-destination\fP \fIaddress\fP[\fB/\fP\fImask\fP][\fB,\fP\fI...\fP]
+Destination specification.
+See the description of the \fB\-s\fP
+(source) flag for a detailed description of the syntax. The flag
+\fB\-\-dst\fP is an alias for this option.
+\fB\-j\fP, \fB\-\-jump\fP \fItarget\fP
+This specifies the target of the rule; i.e., what to do if the packet
+matches it. The target can be a user-defined chain (other than the
+one this rule is in), one of the special builtin targets which decide
+the fate of the packet immediately, or an extension (see \fBEXTENSIONS\fP
+below). If this
+option is omitted in a rule (and \fB\-g\fP
+is not used), then matching the rule will have no
+effect on the packet's fate, but the counters on the rule will be
+\fB\-g\fP, \fB\-\-goto\fP \fIchain\fP
+This specifies that the processing should continue in a user
+specified chain. Unlike the \-\-jump option return will not continue
+processing in this chain but instead in the chain that called us via
+[\fB!\fP] \fB\-i\fP, \fB\-\-in\-interface\fP \fIname\fP
+Name of an interface via which a packet was received (only for
+packets entering the \fBINPUT\fP, \fBFORWARD\fP and \fBPREROUTING\fP
+chains). When the "!" argument is used before the interface name, the
+sense is inverted. If the interface name ends in a "+", then any
+interface which begins with this name will match. If this option is
+omitted, any interface name will match.
+[\fB!\fP] \fB\-o\fP, \fB\-\-out\-interface\fP \fIname\fP
+Name of an interface via which a packet is going to be sent (for packets
+entering the \fBFORWARD\fP, \fBOUTPUT\fP and \fBPOSTROUTING\fP
+chains). When the "!" argument is used before the interface name, the
+sense is inverted. If the interface name ends in a "+", then any
+interface which begins with this name will match. If this option is
+omitted, any interface name will match.
+[\fB!\fP] \fB\-f\fP, \fB\-\-fragment\fP
+This means that the rule only refers to second and further fragments
+of fragmented packets. Since there is no way to tell the source or
+destination ports of such a packet (or ICMP type), such a packet will
+not match any rules which specify them. When the "!" argument
+precedes the "\-f" flag, the rule will only match head fragments, or
+unfragmented packets.
+\fB\-c\fP, \fB\-\-set\-counters\fP \fIpackets bytes\fP
+This enables the administrator to initialize the packet and byte
+counters of a rule (during \fBINSERT\fP, \fBAPPEND\fP, \fBREPLACE\fP
+The following additional options can be specified:
+\fB\-v\fP, \fB\-\-verbose\fP
+Verbose output. This option makes the list command show the interface
+name, the rule options (if any), and the TOS masks. The packet and
+byte counters are also listed, with the suffix 'K', 'M' or 'G' for
+1000, 1,000,000 and 1,000,000,000 multipliers respectively (but see
+the \fB\-x\fP flag to change this).
+For appending, insertion, deletion and replacement, this causes
+detailed information on the rule or rules to be printed.
+\fB\-n\fP, \fB\-\-numeric\fP
+Numeric output.
+IP addresses and port numbers will be printed in numeric format.
+By default, the program will try to display them as host names,
+network names, or services (whenever applicable).
+\fB\-x\fP, \fB\-\-exact\fP
+Expand numbers.
+Display the exact value of the packet and byte counters,
+instead of only the rounded number in K's (multiples of 1000)
+M's (multiples of 1000K) or G's (multiples of 1000M). This option is
+only relevant for the \fB\-L\fP command.
+When listing rules, add line numbers to the beginning of each rule,
+corresponding to that rule's position in the chain.
+When adding or inserting rules into a chain, use \fIcommand\fP
+to load any necessary modules (targets, match extensions, etc).
+iptables can use extended packet matching modules. These are loaded
+in two ways: implicitly, when \fB\-p\fP or \fB\-\-protocol\fP
+is specified, or with the \fB\-m\fP or \fB\-\-match\fP
+options, followed by the matching module name; after these, various
+extra command line options become available, depending on the specific
+module. You can specify multiple extended match modules in one line,
+and you can use the \fB\-h\fP or \fB\-\-help\fP
+options after the module has been specified to receive help specific
+to that module.
+The following are included in the base package, and most of these can
+be preceded by a "\fB!\fP" to invert the sense of the match.
+.\" @MATCH@
+iptables can use extended target modules: the following are included
+in the standard distribution.
+.\" @TARGET@
+Various error messages are printed to standard error. The exit code
+is 0 for correct functioning. Errors which appear to be caused by
+invalid or abused command line parameters cause an exit code of 2, and
+other errors cause an exit code of 1.
+Bugs? What's this? ;-)
+Well, you might want to have a look at
+This \fBiptables\fP
+is very similar to ipchains by Rusty Russell. The main difference is
+that the chains \fBINPUT\fP and \fBOUTPUT\fP
+are only traversed for packets coming into the local host and
+originating from the local host respectively. Hence every packet only
+passes through one of the three chains (except loopback traffic, which
+involves both INPUT and OUTPUT chains); previously a forwarded packet
+would pass through all three.
+The other main difference is that \fB\-i\fP refers to the input interface;
+\fB\-o\fP refers to the output interface, and both are available for packets
+entering the \fBFORWARD\fP chain.
+The various forms of NAT have been separated out; \fBiptables\fP
+is a pure packet filter when using the default `filter' table, with
+optional extension modules. This should simplify much of the previous
+confusion over the combination of IP masquerading and packet filtering
+seen previously. So the following options are handled differently:
+ \-j MASQ
+ \-M \-S
+ \-M \-L
+There are several other changes in iptables.
+The packet-filtering-HOWTO details iptables usage for
+packet filtering, the NAT-HOWTO details NAT,
+the netfilter-extensions-HOWTO details the extensions that are
+not in the standard distribution,
+and the netfilter-hacking-HOWTO details the netfilter internals.
+.BR "" .
+Rusty Russell originally wrote iptables, in early consultation with Michael
+Marc Boucher made Rusty abandon ipnatctl by lobbying for a generic packet
+selection framework in iptables, then wrote the mangle table, the owner match,
+the mark stuff, and ran around doing cool stuff everywhere.
+James Morris wrote the TOS target, and tos match.
+Jozsef Kadlecsik wrote the REJECT target.
+Harald Welte wrote the ULOG and NFQUEUE target, the new libiptc, as well as the TTL, DSCP, ECN matches and targets.
+The Netfilter Core Team is: Marc Boucher, Martin Josefsson, Yasuyuki Kozakai,
+Jozsef Kadlecsik, Patrick McHardy, James Morris, Pablo Neira Ayuso,
+Harald Welte and Rusty Russell.
+Man page originally written by Herve Eychenne <>.
+.\" .. and did I mention that we are incredibly cool people?
+.\" .. sexy, too ..
+.\" .. witty, charming, powerful ..
+.\" .. and most of all, modest ..
+This manual page applies to iptables @PACKAGE_VERSION@.